TheraChoice Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer can happen by chance when cells from the prostate gland grow unpredictably.

The prostate gland is an organ located underneath the urinary bladder, and in front of the rectum. It is roughly the size of a walnut, and wraps around the urethra. Its function is to add ingredients to semen. It grows in response to male hormones, such as testosterone.

Prostate cancer stages are based on the size of your tumor, gleason score, PSA levels, and how much the cancer has spread.

You may hear your doctor tell you that you have a certain stage of prostate cancer. Cancer stages (I, IIA, IIB, III, IV) are based on the factors in pathology report, PSA level, and the amount of cancer spread.

Each stage is further subdivided into categories: tumor (T), lymph node (N) and metastasis (M).

A higher cancer stage generally implies increased severity.

Stage I

Prostaste cancer stage I has not spread beyond the prostate, and can not be felt in a digital rectal exam, and is not visible by imaging.

Characteristics:
Size: less than half of one lobe
PSA level: more than10 ng/mL
Gleason score: < 6

T *tumor size: T1a, T1b, or T1c
N spread to lymph *nodes: N0
M *metastasis: spread to distant sites: M0

Stage IIA

Prostate cancer stage IIA has not spread beyond the prostate, and is limited to one lobe.

Characteristics:
Found in needle biopsy, PSA level: less than 20 ng/mL, Gleason score: 7
or
Found in needle biopsy, PSA level: 10-20 ng/mL, Gleason score: 6
Size: less than half of one lobe, PSA level: 10-20, Gleason score: 7
or
Size: more than half of one lobe, PSA level: less than 20, Gleason score: less than 7
or
Size: more than half of one lobe, PSA level: any

T *tumor size: T2a or T2b
N spread to lymph *nodes: N0
M *metastasis: spread to distant sites: M0

Stage IIb

Prostate cancer stage IIB has not spread beyond the prostate, and may be present in both lobes

Characteristics:
Size: in both lobes, PSA level: any, Gleason score
Not found in digital rectal exam or imaging, PSA level: more than 20 ng/mL, Gleason score: 2-10
or
Not found in digital rectal exam or imaging, PSA level: any, Gleason score: more than 8

T *tumor size: T2c
N spread to lymph *nodes: N0
M *metastasis: spread to distant sites: M0

Stage III

Prostate cancer stage III has breached the outer layer of the prostate, and may have spread to the seminal vesicles.

Characteristics:
PSA level: any Gleason score: more than 8

T *tumor size: T3 or T4
N spread to lymph *nodes: N0
M *metastasis: spread to distant sites: M0

Stage IV (metastatic)

Prostate cancer stage IV has spread beyond the prostate, to other nearby (seminal vesicles, etc.) or distant parts of the body (via lymph nodes, or blood vessels).

Characteristics:
PSA level: any Gleason score: 2-10

T *tumor size: any
N spread to lymph *nodes: N1
M *metastasis: spread to distant sites: M1

what is cancer? what risks are associated with prostate cancer?